In 2011, Australian ecologists David J. Tongway and John A. Ludwig, published a grand summary of their multiple years of on-the-ground experience of restoring disturbed landscapes and ecosystems. Using examples from restoration works on mine sites, road verges, rangelands, and farmland they illustrate how their function-based approach plays out.
The book, “restoring disturbed landscapes – putting principles into practice“, published by Island Press, is a very accessible introduction to the Ecosystem Function Analysis method developed by CSIRO.
One of their main ideas is that restoring degraded ecosystems first requires that the problematic physical (abiotic) processes be solved: the negative effects of topography on water and material flows must be mitigated before self-sustaining biological processes can play their part (e.g. vegetation, grazing regimes, etc.).
Of course, they also remind us that restoration must be framed and carried out in an adaptive management feedback loop where the ecosystem or landscape’s trajectory is monitored and compared to reference conditions. The book is a nicely illustrated reminder of these good practices…
In the context of mitigation requirements for development impacts on biodiversity, the following quote summarizes nicely one of their main points:
switching from simply observing the presence, absence, or abundance of organisms to assessing the status of functional processes in an explicitly spatial (landscape) context is as challenging as venturing into previously uncharted waters. (…) Being able to “read the landscape” is a rare and valuable asset.